[30], An exhibition of Saarinen's work, Eero Saarinen: Shaping the Future, was organized by the Finnish Cultural Institute in New York in collaboration with Yale School of Architecture, the National Building Museum, and the Museum of Finnish Architecture. Eero Saarinen was, along with Louis Kahn, one of the two great European emigres who would become titans of midcentury American architecture. 47 kontakty. This is partly because the Roche and Dinkeloo office has donated its Saarinen archives to Yale University, but also because Saarinen's oeuvre can be said to fit in with present-day concerns about pluralism of styles. Eero defined architecture as a "fine art" and the architect as a "form giver." He was in Ann Arbor, Michigan, overseeing the completion of a new music building for the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance. Taking the beautiful and natural form of a tulip, Eero Saarinen‘s Tulip Chair had more complex issues to deal with on its path into mass production. [citation needed], One of his best-known thin-shell concrete structures in America is the Kresge Auditorium at MIT. Saarinen designed the Kleinhans Music Hall in Buffalo, New York, together with his father, Eliel Saarinen. In 1941 he and the designer-architect Charles Eames won a national furniture award for a chair design in molded plywood. His father's firm was Saarinen, Swansen and Associates, headed by Eliel Saarinen and Robert Swansen from the late 1930s until Eliel's death in 1950. [12][page needed], Eero Saarinen was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1952. Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri, designed by Eero Saarinen, 1965. He was the son of noted Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. He was criticized in his own time—most vociferously by Yale's Vincent Scully—for having no identifiable style; one explanation for this is that Saarinen's vision was adapted to each individual client and project, which were never exactly the same. As a person, Saarinen was outwardly a stocky, calm man of informal manner and puckish humour, but underneath he was intensely serious about architecture and seemed compulsively competitive with his own most recent designs. The GM Technical Center was constructed in 1956, with Saarinen using models, which allowed him to share his ideas with others and gather input from other professionals. Saarinen first received critical recognition while still working for his father, for a chair designed together with Charles Eames for the Organic Design in Home Furnishings competition in 1940, for which they received first prize. He was exploratory in his thinking and committed to research on every level. The small chapel is a stark red-brick cylinder lighted only from above. The Harrison and Abramovitz’s tower for the Aluminum Company of America at Pittsburgh (1954) advertised its…, …he collaborated with the architect-designer. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/eero-saarinen-8507.php His best-known works are the Gateway Arch and the TWA terminal at JFK Airport. Eero Saarinen (20. elokuuta 1910 Hvitträsk, Kirkkonummi – 1. syyskuuta 1961 Ann Arbor, Michigan, Yhdysvallat) oli suomalais-yhdysvaltalainen arkkitehti.Hän loi näyttävän uran arkkitehtina ja huonekalusuunnittelijana. Eero Saarinen, Finnish-born American architect who was a leader in exploration and experiment in American architectural design during the 1950s. In 1953 Saarinen began to design the Kresge Auditorium and chapel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, choosing the basic forms of an eighth of a sphere for the auditorium and a cylinder for the chapel. The firm carried out many of its most important works, including the Bell Labs Holmdel Complex in Holmdel Township, New Jersey; Gateway Arch National Park (including the Gateway Arch) in St. Louis, Missouri; the Miller House in Columbus, Indiana; the TWA Flight Center at John F. Kennedy International Airport, which he worked on with Charles J. Parise; the main terminal of Washington Dulles International Airport; and the new East Air Terminal of the old Athens airport in Greece, which opened in 1967. He was the principal partner from 1950 until his death. All of these designs were highly successful except for the Grasshopper lounge chair, which, although in production through 1965, was not a big success. PHILOSOPHY: Eero saarinen was an american architect and prodect designer,20th century. Saarinens architectural legacy communicates this sentiment of giddy potential and unfettered optimism in post-war America. Eliel was born in Rantasalmi on Aug. 20, 1873. Pokrywał betonowe ściany porcelanową emalią, stosował stal z naturalną warstwą patyny, zabezpieczającą metal przed korozją. His last furniture designs comprised a series of pedestal-based chairs and tables (1957) that combined a sculptural aluminum base with plastic shells for the chairs and discs of marble or plastic for the table tops. Try to remember if these famous names were painters or architects. Saarinen’s technical solution of the curtain wall (metal panels and glass set in aluminum frames) was widely copied. [32] The exhibition was accompanied by the book Eero Saarinen: Shaping the Future. Airs December 2016 on PBS. His buildings were created with meticulous care, from the original analysis of a client’s problem to the final execution, and were sympathetically received by both the general public and his fellow architects. In 1956 two such works were initiated that can be considered representative: Ingalls Hockey Rink at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut (1958), and the Trans World Airlines (TWA) terminal at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York City (1956–62). [1][2] He grew up in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, where his father taught and was dean of the Cranbrook Academy of Art, and he took courses in sculpture and furniture design there. Another thin-shell structure is Yale's Ingalls Rink, which has suspension cables connected to a single concrete backbone and is nicknamed "the whale". The Tulip chair, like all other Saarinen chairs, was taken into production by the Knoll furniture company, founded by Hans Knoll, who married Saarinen family friend Florence (Schust) Knoll. [19], In 1940, he received two first prizes together with Charles Eames in the furniture design competition of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Strips of planted forest rimmed the 320-acre (130-hectare) site. Saarinen’s first independent work, one that brought immediate renown, was the vast General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. For the first time, Eames and Saarinen proposed using three-dimensionally moulded plywood shells for their chairs that would provide a large degree of comfort through their ergonomic form alone, without the need for elaborate upholstery. Despite the overall rational design philosophy, the interiors usually contained dramatic sweeping staircases as well as furniture designed by Saarinen, such as the Pedestal series. In 2006, the bulk of these primary source documents on the couple were digitized and posted online on the Archives' website. Saarinen also designed the … Eero was the son of the noted architect Eliel Saarinen and Loja Gesellius, a textile designer and sculptor. Library of Congress/Balthazar Korab The exciting results were welcomed by many who were bored by the uniformity and austerity of the International Style of modern architecture. Also in 1940 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. His wish that a building make an expressive statement established new horizons for modern architecture. This tentlike form recalls the sloping roofs of Shintō shrines (jinja), suggesting an almost religious space for the game of hockey. While some critics felt that the solutions were forced and arbitrary, these buildings indicated the search Saarinen had begun for significant and identifying character in public buildings. He built only one skyscraper, the CBS Headquarters in New York City (1960–64), and a couple of houses: one for his widowed mother (1950) in Bloomfield Hills and the Miller House in Columbus, Indiana, with its memorable sunken living room (conversation pit). [5][1] Subsequently, he toured Europe for two years and returned to the United States in 1936 to work in his father's architectural practice. Professor of Architectural History, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. "[12][page needed] In 2019 the terminal was transformed into the TWA Hotel.[13][14][15]. Saarinen died of a brain tumour in 1961 at the age of 51, leaving numerous projects to be completed by his associates. Saarinen had an all-embracing notion of the totality of design. The son of a renowned Finnish architect and a well-known textile artist, Eero Saarinen would go on to become one of the most iconic architects of his adopted homeland, the United States, during its post-WWII boom. List of works Saarinen is known for designing the Washington Dulles International Airport outside Washington, D.C., the TWA Flight Center in New York City, and the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1940 Eero and his father designed Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois, which influenced postwar school design, being a one-story structure generously extended in plan and suitably scaled for primary-grade children. [11][10] These have all been either demolished or extensively remodeled. His father’s architecture in Finland had focused on a free adaptation of medieval Scandinavian forms, and in the United States he designed various private school buildings from 1925 to 1941, including Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, following this loose, romantic style. Eero Saarinen: A Reputation for Innovation ... - 1910 – 1961 It was not simply a fact of producing this beautiful shape and colour to imitate nature, but also considering bigger design issues in its construction. Eero Saarinen borrowed from a wide range of sources; he lacked the unifying philosophy of design which can be discerned in his father's architecture. [12][page needed] Scully also criticized him for designing buildings that were "packages", with "no connection with human use ... at once cruelly inhuman and trivial, as if they had been designed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff". Eero Saarinen is often cited as a master of Neoexpressionism. [17] He was elected a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1954. Skonstruował szyby, które odbijały 70 % światła słonecznego. { EERO SAARINEN 1910 - 1961 2. His 1948 prizewinning design for the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial (later Gateway Arch National Park) in St. Louis, Missouri, was completed in 1965. Eero foi um famoso arquiteto Finlandês filho de Eliel Saarinen. One of Saarinen's earliest works to receive international acclaim is the Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois (1940). Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [8] In the 1950s he began to receive more commissions from American universities for campus designs and individual buildings. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). After his tour of Europe and North Africa, Saarinen returned to Cranbrook to work for his father and teach at the academy. [4], Saarinen began studies in sculpture at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, France, in September 1929. When the committee sent out the letter stating Saarinen had won the competition, it was mistakenly addressed to his father. In 1949–50, Saarinen was hired by the then-new Brandeis University to create a master plan for the campus. He frequently collaborated with his son, Eero Saarinen, who was … For the Yale hockey rink, Saarinen, avoiding the typical field house, achieved a unique and sympathetic sports building. [11] The plan was never built but was useful in attracting donors. Author of. Kariera. This partnership was dissolved in 1947, and a new partnership of Saarinen, Saarinen and Associates was then formed that lasted until the elder Saarinen’s death. Always immersed in architecture, he had no other real interest. This is a list of houses, commercial buildings, educational facilities, furniture designs, and other structures designed by architect Eero Saarinen.Many of Saarinen's early designs were in collaboration with his father Eliel Saarinen.. The exhibition toured in Europe and the United States from 2006 to 2010,[31] including a stint at the National Building Museum in Washington, DC. These include the Noyes dormitory at Vassar and Hill College House at the University of Pennsylvania as well as the Ingalls ice rink, Ezra Stiles & Morse Colleges at Yale University, the MIT Chapel and neighboring Kresge Auditorium at MIT and the University of Chicago Law School building and grounds. [29], The Eero Saarinen collection at the Canadian Centre for Architecture documents eight built projects, including the old Athens airport in Greece, the former US Embassy Chanceries in Oslo, Norway and London, England, corporate projects for John Deere, CBS, and IBM, and the North Christian Church in Columbus, Indiana. Explore the life of Finnish-American modernist architectural giant Eero Saarinen. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [33], In 2016 Eero Saarinen: The Architect Who Saw the Future, a film about Saarinen (co-produced by his son Eric), premiered on the PBS American Masters series. The memorial wasn't completed until the 1960s. [18] In 1962, he was posthumously awarded a gold medal by the American Institute of Architects. The Saarinen family of four, including a sister, Eva-Lisa, moved to the United States in 1923, where they settled first in Evanston, Illinois, and then in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Saarinen was recruited by Donal McLaughlin, an architectural school friend from his Yale days, to join the military service in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Designed by Eliel Saarinen’s son Eero, the General Motors Technical Center (1948–56) at Warren, Michigan, was compared with Versailles in its extent, grandeur, and rigorous conformity to an austere, geometric aesthetic of Miesian forms. Eero Saarinen. While to some it proclaimed virtuosity over logic, Saarinen believed that “we must have an emotional reason as well as a logical end for everything we do.” Later Saarinen designed Dulles International Airport (1958–62), outside Washington, D.C., with a hanging roof suspended from diagonal supports. [26], The papers of Aline and Eero Saarinen, from 1906 to 1977,[27] were donated in 1973 to the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution (by Charles Alan, Aline Saarinen's brother and executor of her estate[28]). It exhibits imaginative sculptural use of reinforced concrete. [10] Saarinen did build a few residential structures on the campus, including Ridgewood Quadrangle (1950), Sherman Student Center (1952) and Shapiro Dormitory at Hamilton Quadrangle (1952). Although Saarinen continued to use rectilinear forms on occasion, such as the United States Embassy in London (1955–60) and the Law School at the University of Chicago (1956–60), it was his freely sculptural designs that achieved greater attention. Eero Saarinen was a Finnish born-American architect born on August 20, 1910. It conveys a sense of ceremony and special place yet also one of delight and ease, qualities that are present in all of Saarinen’s works, whatever their function. In the 11 years that he survived his father, Saarinen’s own work included a series of dramatically different designs that displayed a richer and more diverse vocabulary. Eero Saarinen (/ˈeɪroʊ ˈsɑːrɪnən, ˈɛəroʊ -/, Finnish: [ˈeːro ˈsɑːrinen]; August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish-American architect and industrial designer noted for his wide-ranging array of designs for buildings and monuments. After his father's death in July 1950, Saarinen founded his own architect's office, Eero Saarinen and Associates. Eero Saarinen philosophy He grew up with multi-talented parents and was taught that every single object should be created in the “next largest context.” The Eero Saarinen style leaned on mid-century modernism and revolved on his design philosophy, which he called the six pillars of architecture. [1][2] They immigrated to the United States in 1923, when Eero was thirteen. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [21], Saarinen married sculptor Lilian Swann in 1939, with whom he had two children, Eric and Susan. The purpose of architecture is to shelter and enhance mans life on earth and to fulfill his belief in the nobility of his existence, said Eero Saarinen in 1959. Saarinen married Lillian Swann, a sculptor, in 1939, and they had two children, Eric and Susan. The firm was located in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, until 1961 when the practice was moved to Hamden, Connecticut. Po raz pierwszy na arenie międzynarodowej Aino-Kaisa Saarinen pojawiła się 7 marca 1998 roku w Lahti podczas zawodów Pucharu Świata, zajmując 51. miejsce w biegu na 15 km techniką dowolną.Był to jej jedyny start pucharowy w sezonie 1997/1998 i wobec braku zdobytych punktów nie została uwzględniona w klasyfikacji generalnej. Eero saarinen 1. Valkoisen talon "sotahuoneen". Eero Saarinen was born on August 20, 1910, to Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen and his second wife, Louise, on his father's 37th birthday. Eero Saarinen (ur. The firm was located in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, until 1961 when the practice was moved to Hamden, Connecticut. [20], Saarinen became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1940. Saarinen worked with his father, mother, and sister designing elements of the Cranbrook campus in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, including the Cranbrook School, Kingswood School, the Cranbrook Art Academy, and the Cranbrook Science Institute. Eliel Saarinen. Omissions? The Saarinen family has a legacy of great design, and as we seek to preserve the past, we look to … Son of an architect and sculptor, Eero went to public schools in Michigan and in 1929 joined Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris to study studied sculpturing. Further attention came also while Saarinen was still working for his father when he took first prize in the 1948 competition for the design of the Gateway Arch National Park (then known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial) in St. Louis. [5], In 1940 Saarinen became a naturalized citizen of the United States.[6]. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 20 sierpnia 1910 w Kirkkonummi, zm. Both were born in areas around the Baltic Sea that, at the time of their births, were technically part of Russia, though Saarinen's family was decidedly Finnish (Finland became independent of Russia during the 1917 Russian Revolution), and both immigrated to the United States as childr… The Gateway Arch is a graceful and spectacular arch of stainless steel with a span and height of 630 feet (190 metres). The auditorium is arranged entirely within this dramatically simple form. In furniture design, the client is Everyman.” His mother, Loja Saarinen, was a gifted weaver, photographer, sculptor and architectural model maker. In questioning the presuppositions of early modern architecture, he introduced sculptural forms that were rich in architectural character and visual drama unknown in earlier years. Updates? [10] Saarinen's plan A Foundation for Learning: Planning the Campus of Brandeis University (1949; second edition 1951), developed with Matthew Nowicki, called for a central academic complex surrounded by residential quadrangles along a peripheral road. Eero Saarinen wiele czasu poświęcał wdrażaniu nowych materiałów i udoskonalaniu już znanych. This marriage ended in divorce in 1953, and Saarinen was remarried the following year to Aline Bernstein Loucheim, an art critic. In 1929 Eero studied sculpture at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, but, as he recounted years later, “it never occurred to me to do anything but follow in my father’s footsteps.” Between 1931 and 1934 he studied architecture at Yale University, where the curriculum was untouched by modern theories. [4] He then went on to study at the Yale School of Architecture, completing his studies in 1934. After his tour of Europe and North Africa, Saarinen returned to Cranbrook to work for his father and teach at the academy. Emigrou para os EUA em 1923 onde estudou arquitetura na Universidade de Yale 3. . The curvilinear forms of his furniture designs paralleled his growing interest in sculptural architectural forms. A son, Eames, was born later that year. Unfortunately, the design was never executed. The competition award was mistakenly sent to his father because both he and his father had entered the competition separately. 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