Discussion: Social Science Paradigms Social research is a process of systematic inquiry of the social world through inductive and deductive reasoning" ( Yuen, Terao, and Schmidt, 2013, p. 32). How, for example, can we explain cooperative behavior as an effort to keep kin‐​related individuals alive? It regards as inadequate both historical explanations and methodological individualistic explanations. To some, abortion is a medical procedure that should be undertaken at the discretion of each individual woman who might experience an unwanted pregnancy. We can look at the different meanings that can be associated with different hand gestures as an example. Phase 4 – Paradigm shift, or ... Barry Barnes detailed the connection between the sociology of scientific knowledge and Kuhn in his book T. S. Kuhn and Social Science. Postmodernism is difficult to define, because to do so would actually violate the postmodernist´s perspective that there are no definite terms, boundaries, or absolute truth (Aylesworth, 2015). Consider differences between them and how they could be applied to human and social services. In sociology, researchers generally classified theories or research strategies as paradigms: Ritzer, made a classification of social compounds, social facts and social behavior as three paradigms; for macrosociology, Bottomore (1975) identified four paradigms (structural-functionalist, evolutionist, phenomenologist, and structuralist). radha. 1.5 Research Paradigms in Social Science; 1.6 Inductive Approaches to Research; 1.7 Deductive Approaches to Research; Summary; Key Takeaways; References; Chapter 2: Ethics in Research. Burrell and Morgan (1979) progressed the paradigm approach by proposing the situating of social theory along two axes of subjective versus objective and order versus conflict creating four quadrants. 301 certified writers online. It is a way of framing what we know, what we can know, and how we can know it. Paradigms are conceptual and practical “tools” that are used to solve specific research problems; in other words, paradigms function as heuristics in social research (Abbott 2004, p. 42).Each paradigm has a different perspective on the axiology, ontology, epistemology, methodology, and rhetoric of research. RESEARCH PARADIGMS: METHODOLOGIES AND COMPATIBLE METHODS Abderrazak Dammak* (“All But Dissertation” (ABD) Doctoral Candidate in TESOL) Abstract Conducting educational research studies is a daunting and challenging experience for novice researchers. And last, its goal is to find invariant forms in different contexts, e.g. Choose two social science paradigms from the Learning Resources this week (e.g., feminist, symbolic interactionism, critical race theory, etc.). Social Science Paradigms. Positivism in Social Science 5.2 What is involved in writing a literature review? Whether any of these paradigms can be used to reductively explain all human behavior remains doubtful. The paradigm of scientific research, in turn, consists of ontology, epistemology methodology, and methods. Figure 1.3 provides an example of two students, each from a difference academic field of study, and how they might approach their research in their respective fields. study of historical, cultural, sociological, psychological, and political forces that shape actions of individuals and impact society. Everyday low prices and free delivery on … People interpret their social roles in relationship, which influences how they then give meaning to those roles and the roles of others. Leonard (1975) suggested breaking theory into two paradigms—physical science and social science. (4) Structuralism, a recent perspective applied to several disciplines, displays the following characteristics. Social scientists have adopted the Kuhnian phrase "paradigm shift" to denote a change in how a given society goes about organizing and understanding reality. (2009, p. 116) observe, the reference to social actors bears noting. Every research uses one of the research paradigms to use as a guideline for developing resear… thanks for sharing such information on one of the important aspects of conducting research in social science. Explain the most important similarities and differences between the two. “No longer do Neo‐​Marxians believe that the mode of production determines all other social relations. PLAY. So might the parents and teenagers themselves. There is a sensitivity to the other person’s world view. The recent “Rational Expectations” school teaches that government economic policy can affect production only when it surprises people’s foresight. Have you ever stopped to consider all of the little pieces that make up the culture in which you live? 184–232. 8.1 Survey Research: What Is It and When Should It Be Used? It was revealed that the two paradigms are opposing each other. Karl Marx's discussion of the "class struggle" would be an example. Social Science. A postmodernist asks whose power, whose inequality, whose change, whose reality, and whose truth? In daily life, for example, liberals and conservatives often explain the same phenome-non—teenagers using guns at school, for ex-ample—quite differently. This paradigm operates from the perspective that scientific investigation should be conducted with the express goal of seeking social change. Four paradigms of social science research (Source: Burrell and Morgan, 1979) To date, the majority of social science research has emulated the natural sciences, and followed the functionalist paradigm. 10.4 Other Qualitative Data Collection Methods, 10.5 Analysis of Qualitative Interview Data, 10.6 Qualitative Coding, Analysis, and Write-up: The How to Guide, 10.7 Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Interviews, Chapter 11: Quantitative Interview Techniques & Considerations, 11.2 Analysis of Quantitative Interview Data, 11.3 Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative Interviews, 11.4 Issues to Consider for All Interview Types, Chapter 12: Field Research: A Qualitative Research Technique. July 22, 2018 Reply. Researchers operating within this framework take keen interest in how people come to socially agree, or disagree, about what is real and true. Positivists in social science work on the cause and effect model that is used in the pure science, this enables them to predict human behavior under certain circumstances. Different schools in social science result from different but often incomplete combinations of these foundational paradigms. For this purpose, a corpus of PhD Theses and RAs from Medical and Social Sciences is collected (one million word). RESEARCH PARADIGMS: METHODOLOGIES AND COMPATIBLE METHODS Abderrazak Dammak* (“All But Dissertation” (ABD) Doctoral Candidate in TESOL) ... that they can apply methods of the natural sciences on the practices of social sciences. A paradigm, in the context of theory and research, is a particular and accepted set of thoughts and assumptions about the way things are and the way research should be done. Another predominant paradigm in sociology is social constructionism. structural functionalism (Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, Talcott Parsons, and … For example, let’s look at people’s views on abortion. With the social sciences turning to smaller and more manageable research problems, we need to reconsider whether unified social science is still possible. “Alienation” is now…the central Marxian concept.”. Table 1.1 “Social Scientific Paradigms” summarizes each of the paradigms discussed here. This can range from thought patterns to action. Choose two social science paradigms from the Learning Resources this week (e.g., feminist, symbolic interactionism, critical race theory, etc.). Buy Unthinking Social Science: The Limits of Nineteenth-century Paradigms by Wallerstein, Immanuel (ISBN: 9780745609119) from Amazon's Book Store. An important element of the text is the presentation of two classifications of paradigms in social sciences with particular consideration given to qualitative research. “Alienation” is now regarded as the central Marxian concept. 14.1 What are the Goals of a Research Proposal? Explain the most important similarities and differences between the two. Methodological choice, according to Holden and Lynch , should be related to the philosophical position of the researcher and the analyzed social science phenomenon. Reality as mutually dependent fields of information. What is the connection between the six social science paradigms and the three methodological approaches (the analytical approach, the systems approach, and the actors approach) in business, and what are the key assumptions that drive the three methodologies? There is emphasis on the individual both the subject and the researcher. Paradigms, Theory, and Social Research Holographic Overview Social scientific inquiry is an interplay of theory and research, logic and observation, induction and deduction—and of the fundamental frames of reference known as paradigms. Hand gestures vary across different regions of the world, demonstrating that meaning is constructed socially and collectively. Social Science Research Paradigms-- Positivism and Interpretivism.The study of social phenomenon requires an understanding of the social worlds that people inhabitand the meanings they produce.But not all social scientists use the same methodology.There are two main paradigms that underpin social scienceresearch.Positivism and interpretivism. It holds that science or knowledge creation should be restricted to what can be observed and measured. 7.4 Who Sampled, How Sampled, and for What Purpose? Chapter 1: Introduction to Research Methods, 1.4 Understanding Key Research Concepts and Terms, 2.2 Research on Human Participants: An Historical Look, 2.3 Institutional Research Review Boards (IRBs), 2.5 A Final Word about the Protection of Research Participants, Chapter 3: Developing a Research Question, 3.1 Normative Versus Empirical Statements, 3.2 Exploration, Description, Explanation, 3.3 Developing a Researchable Research Question, 3.5 Quantitative, Qualitative, & Mixed Methods Research Approaches, Chapter 4: Measurement and Units of Analysis, 4.4 Units of Analysis and Units of Observation. Then we shall examine the historical roots and the guiding principles of the positivist and the interpretive paradigms. 3. However, after significant efforts of normal science within a paradigm fail, science may enter the next phase. A paradigm is a model or framework within which to view and understand some phenomenon. Each generates theories, concepts, and analytical tools which are different from those of other paradigms. Krista also studies business organizations; however, she is more interested in collecting and analyzing data about “feelings” and “attitudes” of the male public health workers toward their female managers. To adequately understand human society and its history, we need to deploy all 11 foundational paradigms, although more limited combinations of them may be adequate for understanding more specific social facts. This can range from thought patterns to action. This was later adapted by Howe to social work theory in 1987. Mortimer Adler, Ed., The Great Ideas Today, 1980(Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1980), pp. Some Social Science Paradigms There is usually more than one way to make sense of things. Its simply awesome. Two popular paradigms today among social science researchers are positivism and post-positivism. Chapter 13: Unobtrusive Research: Qualitative And Quantitative Approaches, 13.6 Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. 2.1 A Humanistic Approach to Research; 2.2 Research on Human Participants: An Historical Look; 2.3 Institutional Research Review Boards (IRBs) 2.4 Guiding Ethical Principles Social and Political Philosophy; Value Theory, Miscellaneous; Science, Logic, and Mathematics. With the social sciences turning to smaller and more manageable research problems, we need to reconsider whether unified social science is still possible. Similarly, people interpret the social roles of others in accordance with their own meanings of those roles. The chapter ends with a few reflections concerning currents trends in … Social science uses a variety of different paradigms, and this section of Chapter Two examines some of them. Also abandoned is the idea that a shrinking labor base will lead capitalism into crises. A postmodernist would also claim that we can never really know such truth because, in the studying and reporting of others’ truths, researchers put their own truth on the investigation. therefore critically examined the positivist and a non positivist research paradigm in social science research. Or, does biology become less relevant to man once new principles of consciousness emerge? For her, reality is represented by tangible things such as job position, promotions, compensation, etc. These recent Marxians have revised three tenets of the older Marxian social theory. She prefers to take a positivist approach to research. July 30, 2018 Reply. The tabular form is much interesting and comprehensive. In social science, there are several predominant paradigms, each with its own unique ontological and epistemological perspective. Start studying the six social sciences. As you might imagine, the postmodernist paradigm poses quite a challenge for social scientific researchers. A research paradigm is an approach or a research model to conducting a research that has been verified by the research community for long and that has been in practice for hundreds of years. This item: Unthinking Social Science: Limits Of 19Th Century Paradigms by Immanuel Wallerstein Paperback $27.95 Only 3 left in stock (more on the way). Its epistemological goal is to find quantitative relationships, not qualitative ones, beneath the surface phenomena. Positivism in Social Science The four paradigms are founded upon different assumptions about the nature of social science and the nature of society. Most of the research paradigms emerge from one of the two of the approaches to research that are positivist approach and interpretivism approach. Chances are, if you have an opinion about this topic, you are pretty certain about the veracity of your perspective. This fascinating question is worth pondering as you begin to think about conducting your own sociological research. Six Social Paradigms 1. In simple terms, social science paradigms function in the same way for research. You are each operating under a set of assumptions about the way the world does—or at least should—work. As Saunders et al. See Kuhn’s seminal work for more on paradigms: Kuhn, T. (1962). Different schools in social science result from different but often incomplete combinations of these foundational paradigms. To adequately understand human society and its history, we need to deploy all 11 foundational paradigms, although more limited combinations of them may be adequate for understanding more specific social facts. One of the paradigms that emerged in the recent years is the mixed-method research. Though basically there are two paradigms but there are several other paradigms emerged from these two especially in the social science research. 10.2 When should qualitative data collection be used? The pioneering European sociologists, however, also offered a broad conceptualization of the fundamentals of society and its workings. They are like lenses that influence the perspective of a researcher. They relate this to the same way in which people interpret their social roles in relationship and how they then give meaning to those roles. A well written article on the paradigms of research in social science. Post a description of the paradigms you selected. Constructivist-Interpretive Paradigm The proponents of this paradigm assert that reality is not fixed and therefore knowledge is not fixed waiting to be discovered by social scientists (Travers, 2010, p.22). The conflict paradigm is used to explain factors such as the socioeconomic inequality, including poverty and wealthy, ageism and sexism. Everyday low prices and free delivery on … Choose two social science paradigms from the Learning Resources this week (e.g., feminist, symbolic interactionism, critical race theory, etc.). STUDY. Four contemporary paradigms attempt to offer holistic explanations: (1) Sociobiology; (2) Macro‐​economics; (3) Neo‐​Marxism; and (4) Structuralism. Positivists believe that there are pre-tested theories that can determine this cause and effect and these theories can be generalized to various settings. When stripped to the bare bone, there are only 11 foundational paradigms in social sciences. One of the paradigms that emerged in the recent years is the mixed-method research. Choose two social science paradigms from the Learning Resources this week (e.g., feminist, symbolic interactionism, critical race theory, etc. Then again, the person who sits next to you on the bus may have a very different opinion and yet be equally confident about the truth of his or her perspective. Leah is interested in collecting and analyzing the “facts” related to the success of women in private sector businesses. Truth as varying, socially constructed, and ever-changing, Reality is created collectively; social context and interaction frame our realities. Different schools in social science result from different but often incomplete combinations of these foundational paradigms. They claim the reverse. Perhaps your assumptions come from your particular political perspective, which helps shape your view on a variety of social issues, or perhaps your assumptions are based on what you learned from your parents or from a religion. Philosophy of social science, branch of philosophy that examines the concepts, methods, and logic of the social sciences.The philosophy of social science is consequently a metatheoretical endeavour—a theory about theories of social life. Social Sciences Lesson Plans & Resources ... How do social paradigms affect one's understanding of reality and humanity? 12.2 Field Research: When is it Appropriate? Definition. Consider differences between them and how they could be applied to human and social services. We will begin with the concept of paradigm – that is, the perspective that inspires and directs a given science. The first paradigm we will consider, positivism, is probably the framework that comes to mind for many of you when you think of science. The emphasis is on conducting research among people, as opposed to objects. To some, abortion is a me… Why or why not. Paradigm: A paradigm is simply a belief system (or theory) that guides the way we do things, or more formally establishes a set of practices. To begin, macrotheory views social phenomena from a societal, international, or other high-level group perspecctive. In social sciences, there has been debate for … Positivists use quantitative methods of data collection in social science. Consider differences between them and how they could be applied to human and social services. Buy Unthinking Social Science: Limits Of 19Th Century Paradigms 2Rev Ed by Wallerstein, Immanuel (ISBN: 9781566398992) from Amazon's Book Store. Reality as concrete and conformable to law a structure independent of the observer. Paradigms are broad perspectives or viewpoints that allow social scientists to have a variety of tools to describe the behavior of the society, and be able to create hypothesis and theories. At the root of these questions lies a basic question: In what way does genetic inheritance limit the ranges of human behavior? 8.2 Understanding the Difference between a Survey and a Questionnaire, 9.1 From Completed Survey to Analyzable Data, Chapter 10: Qualitative Data Collection & Analysis Methods. These ideas, concepts, and beliefs that you and others share about religion, nationality, and other pieces of culture are probably a big part of your individual and collective identi… Thomas Kuhn, an American scientist, argued that the way most people see science is not quite accurate. Social sciences. Social theory can usefully be conceived in terms of four key paradigms: functionalist, interpretive, radical humanist, and radical structuralist. In this Discussion, you select social science paradigms of professional interest to you and consider how they could be applied to human and social services. Post a description of the paradigms you selected. A paradigm is a way of viewing the world, a set of ideas that is used to understand or explain something, often related to a specific subject (“Paradigm,” 2018). Although not theories in themselves, paradigms are fundamental frameworks of reference that underlie and give birth to theories.How paradigms differ from simple lenses, however, is that they sometimes can lie below consciousness and are not a deliberate … Consider differences between them and how they could be applied to human and social services. In Kuhn's view, the existence of a single reigning paradigm is characteristic of the natural sciences, while philosophy and much of social science were characterized by a "tradition of claims, counterclaims, and debates over fundamentals." While some researchers might argue that feelings and attitudes are subjective and not measurable, human feelings can and are frequently measured. The positivist paradigm follows a determination that every phenomenon or occurrence has a cause that can define the effect or the consequence. “In everyday usage, paradigm refers either to a model or an example to be followed or to an established system or way of doing things. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In pure sciences, quantitative research methodology is clearly the most favored approach to conducting the research. Others have applied Kuhn's concept of paradigm shift to the social sciences. The paradigm of scientific research, in turn, consists of ontology, epistemology methodology, and methods. To help you understand what a paradigm is, let us think about the various views on abortion. Dr. Jackson designed a PSI version of the course, … 17.3 Revisiting an Earlier Question: Why Should We Care? Learn More. Keywords Paradigms Ontology Epistemology Methodology Subjectivism Objectivism This work was supported by the Polish National Science Center grant 2013/11/D/HS4/03878. It considers all cultural phenomena in terms of “signs.” It understands the underlying structure of mind as rational. seeing “kinship” in terms of invariant relations of residence and rules of descent. Marxist Historiography & the French Revolution, Thomas Hodgskin: Libertarian Extraordinaire, Part 3. How does one study something that may or may not be real or that is only real in your current and unique experience of it? For our purposes, we’ll define paradigm as a way of viewing the world (or “analytic lens” akin to a set of glasses) and a framework from which to understand the human experience (Kuhn, 1962). Definitions, sorts and classifications (positivist, constructivist, critical) of paradigms were discussed. Which of you is correct? In this study, scientific research paradigms that lead social sciences research were inquired. Positivism is guided by the principles of objectivity, knowability, and deductive logic. A positivist and an interpretivist approach to research: Focus on student research (adapted from Saunders et al., 2009). If you bear used Instagram, Photobooth, or any estimate of photo editing or publishing products, you may be accustomed after a while filters that may be applied to photos. In fact, we might question how the data that Leah collects in statistical form are more deserving of authority that the data collected by Krista. Large firms, through market control, can raise prices and finance investment from internal funds. Interpretivism is a research paradigm that is based on the study and interpretation of the … The various institutions of society such as the legal and political system are instruments of ruling class domination and serve to further its interests. Though basically there are two paradigms but there are several other paradigms emerged from these two especially in the social science research. While individuals may construct their own realities, groups—from a small one, such as a married couple, to large ones, such as nations—often agree on notions of what is true and what “is.” The meanings that we construct have power beyond the individual people who create them; therefore, the ways that people work to change such meanings is of as much interest to social constructionists as how they were created in the first place. Kizito . Post a description of the paradigms you selected. It can be difficult to fully grasp the idea of paradigmatic assumptions because we are very ingrained in our own, personal everyday way of thinking. Can we apply the constants found in other species in the same way to man? The course, “History of Western Cultural Traditions,” was popular and had several sections. Professor Jackson believed PSI would be a good format for humanities courses, and to test his hypothesis he and his colleagues conducted a ... paradigms, or world views about what research is … Their views form the basis for today's theoretical perspectives, or paradigms, ... Functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, or cohesion, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. Positivist social scientists try to replicate procedures followed by natural scientists to control and Post a description of the paradigms you selected. This is because we, according to this paradigm, create reality ourselves (as opposed to working to discover reality that simply exists) through our interactions and our interpretations of those interactions. In this quest for generalization, sociobiology asserts two claims: that we need biology to explain the species‐​specific behavior both of individuals and of groups. Paradigms in Social Science For our purposes, we’ll define paradigm as an analytic lens, a way of viewing the world and a framework from which to understand the human experience (Kuhn, 1962). Inflation results from people trying to increase their relative share of income. Lawrence Neuman. She prefers to take an interpretivist approach to research. In pure sciences, quantitative research methodology is clearly the most favored approach to conducting the research. A fourth paradigm is known as the critical paradigm. Research Methods for the Social Sciences: An Introduction, Next: 1.6 Inductive Approaches to Research, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Four contemporary paradigms attempt to offer holistic explanations: (1) Sociobiology; (2) Macro‐ economics; (3) Neo‐ Marxism; and (4) Structuralism. From this perspective, the most known and used social science paradigms are the conflict paradigm, symbolic interactionism, and structural functionalism. To Prepare. Constructivist-Interpretive Paradigm. Choose two social science paradigms from the Learning Resources this week (e.g., feminist, symbolic interactionism, critical race … Society can and should be studied empirically and scientifically. Krista is a student in the social sciences department (public health). Post a description of the paradigms you selected. Thanks so much for this. Explain the most important similarities and differences between the two. Recall that ontology is the study of what is real, and epistemology is the study of how we come to know what is real. Keynesians were baffled by simultaneous high inflation and high unemployment, while Monetarists failed in showing a fixed relationship between the money supply and interest rates. Positivism, based on the works of French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798- 1857), was the dominant scientific paradigm until the mid-20th century. In the future, reconsiderations about “economic man” and the role of time may invalidate the older paradigms. Positivism also calls for a value-free sociology, one in which researchers aim to abandon their biases and values in a quest for objective, empirical, and knowable truth. Truth in any form may or may not be knowable. (2) Economics has multiplied its rival paradigms to provide more adequate explanations than those of the Keynesians or the Monetarists. Paradigms shape our stances on issues such as this one. We will write a custom Essay on Paradigms in Social Science specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. There are, of course, many traditions and institutions, like public schools, but what about the beliefs that you share with those around you, like friends and family? Reality as a concrete determining process. Social Science Research CHAPTER 01-Willis (Foundations)-45170.qxd 1/1/2007 12:01 PM Page 1. They use the analogy of the theatre, where actors interpret, in a specific way, the parts they play. Finally, explain how each … Kuhn and the paradigms of sciences 9; Three basic questions 11; Positivism 13; Neopositivism and postpositivism 17 ; Interpretivism 20; A final note: radicalization, criticism and new tendencies 25; This chapter illustrates the philosophical bases of the two basic approaches to social research which gave rise to the families of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Finally, explain how each … It would be a mistake to think of the social constructionist perspective as only individualistic. “The Social Sciences since the Second World War,” Part Two. This solution examines the connection between the six social science paradigms and the three methodological approaches (the analytical approach, the systems approach, and the actors approach) in business, and the key assumptions that drive the three methodologies. Research Methods for the Social Sciences: An Introduction by Valerie Sheppard is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. 16.3 Sociological Research: It is everywhere? The findings show that positivist and a non positivist research are conflicting paradigms and a researcher needs to cortically evaluate each and every paradigm before employing it in his research activities. In other words, a postmodernist would claim there is no objective, knowable truth. Begin to think about the veracity of your perspective postmodernist would claim there is objective! 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How do social paradigms affect one 's Understanding of reality and humanity human feelings and! Some social science result from different but often incomplete combinations of these foundational in! Learn vocabulary, terms, and for what Purpose and methods clearly the most common social scientific researchers some. Two popular paradigms today among social science paradigms there is usually more than one to! Scientific investigation should be studied empirically and scientifically to qualitative research sciences is collected ( one million word ) Goals! We will write a custom Essay on paradigms in social sciences karl Marx 's discussion of research... “ History of Western cultural Traditions, ” Part two chapter 01-Willis ( Foundations -45170.qxd... Scientific researchers every phenomenon or occurrence has a cause that can determine this cause and effect and theories. 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Social roles in relationship, which influences how they could be applied to human social. Most known and used social science to law a structure independent of the text the. It holds that science or knowledge creation should be studied empirically and scientifically that a shrinking labor base will capitalism... A non positivist research paradigm in social sciences since the Second world War, ” Part.! Policy can affect production only when it surprises people ’ s world view several disciplines, displays following... They then give meaning to those roles and the nature of society regards as inadequate both historical and! Opinion about this topic, you are each operating under a set of assumptions about nature. At her university ; Value theory, Miscellaneous ; science, logic, and world!, abortion is a me… two popular paradigms today among social science function. Why should we Care determination that every phenomenon or occurrence has a cause can! Different regions of the most common social scientific researchers by the Polish National science grant..., concepts, and your world aspects of conducting research in social science, there are predominant. Roles in relationship, which influences how they could be applied to human and social..

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